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​You will find an overview of the principles and techniques presented at the Leipzig School in the following publications.

Cancer field theory

  • Höckel M, Behn U: The order of cancer: A theory of malignant progression by inverse morphogenesis. Front Oncol 2019; doi: 10.3389/fonc.2019.00416​
  • Kubitschke H, Wolf B, Morawetz E, Horn L-C, Aktas B, Behn U, Höckel M, Käs J: Roadmap to Local Tumour Growth: Insights from Cervical Cancer. Sci Rep 2019; 9(1):12768  ​ 
  • Höckel M: Morphogenetic fields of embryonic development in locoregional spread. Lancet Oncol 2015; 16: e148-e151
  • Höckel M: Association between developmental steps in the organogenesis of the uterine cervix and locoregional progression of cervical cancer: a prospective clinicopathological analysis. Lancet Oncol 2014; 15: 445-456
  • Höckel M, et al.: Ontogenetic anatomy of the distal vagina: relevance for local tumor spread and implications for cancer surgery. Gynecol Oncol 2011; 122: 313-318
  • Höckel M, et al.: Local spread of cervical cancer revisited: a clinical and pathological pattern analysis. Gynecol Oncol 2010; 117: 401-408
  • Höckel M, Dornhöfer N: Understanding and preventing local tumour recurrence Lancet Oncol 2009; 10: 645-646​


  • Buderath P, Stukan M, Ruhwedel W, Strutas D, Feisel-Schwickardi G, Wimberger P, Kimmig R: Total mesometrial resection (TMMR) for cervical cancer FIGO IB-IIA: first results from the multicentric TMMR register study. J Gynecol Oncol. 2022 Jan;33(1):e9.​
  • Wolf B, Espig O, Stolzenburg J-U, Horn L-C, Aktas B, Höckel M: Preservation of the mesureter to reduce urinary complications: analysis of data from the observational Leipzig School MMR study. BJOG 2020; 127(7): 859-865
  • Höckel M, et al: Surgical resection based on ontogenetic cancer field theory for cervical cancer: mature results from a single-centre prospective, observational, cohort study. Lancet Oncol 2019; 20: 1316-1326
  • ​Höckel M, et al.: Resection of the embryologically defined uterovaginal (Müllerian) compartment and pelvic control in patients with cervical cancer: a prospective analysis. Lancet Oncol 2009; 10: 683-692
  • Höckel M, Horn L-C, Fritsch H: Association between mesenchymal compartment of uterovaginal organogenesis and local tumour spread in stage I B - II B cervical carcinoma: a prospective study. Lancet Oncol 2005; 6: 751-756​


  • Trott S, Höckel M, Dornhöfer N, Geue K, Aktas B, Wolf B: Quality of life and associated factors after surgical treatment of vulvar cancer by vulvar field resection (VFR). Arch Gynecol Obstet 2020; 302(1): 191-201.
  • Höckel M, et al.: Vulvar field resection based on ontogenetic cancer field theory for surgical treatment of vulvar carcinoma: a single-centre, single-group, prospective trial. Lancet Oncol 2018; Published online first on March 9th 2018.
  • Höckel M, et al.: Vulvar field resection: novel approach to the surgical treatment of vulvar cancer based on ontogenetic anatomy. Gynecol Oncol 2010; 119: 106-113
  • Höckel M, Dornhöfer N: Vulvovaginal reconstruction for neoplastic disease.
    Lancet Oncol 2008; 9: 559-568  


  • Wolf B, Ganzer R, Stolzenburg JU, Hentschel B, Horn LC, Höckel M.
    Extended mesometrial resection (EMMR): Surgical approach to the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer based on the theory of ontogenetic cancer fields. Gynecol Oncol 2017; 146(2): 292-298


  • ​Höckel M, Wolf B, Hentschel B, Horn LC.: Surgical treatment and histopathological assessment of advanced cervicovaginal carcinoma: A prospective study and retrospective analysis. Eur J Cancer 2017; 70: 99-110
  • Höckel M, et al.: (Laterally) extended endopelvic resection: surgical treatment of locally advanced and recurrent cancer of the uterine cervix and vagina based on ontogenetic anatomy. Gynecol Oncol 2012; 127: 297-302
  • Höckel M, Dornhöfer N: Pelvic exenteration for gynaecological tumours: achievements and unanswered questions. Lancet Oncol 2006; 7: 837-847


  • ​Höckel M, et al.: Pattern analysis of regional spread and therapeutic lymph node dissection in cervical cancer based on ontogenetic anatomy. Gynecol Oncol 2012; 125: 168-174
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