Archiv Juli 2011
Purinergic signaling involved in Müller cell function in the mammalian retina.Wurm A, Pannicke T, Iandiev I, Francke M, Hollborn M, Wiedemann P, Reichenbach A, Osborne NN, Bringmann A.
Prog Retin Eye Res. 2011 Jun 17. [Epub ahead of print]
Purines (in particular, ATP and adenosine) act as neuro- and gliotransmitters in the sensory retina where they are involved in bidirectional neuron-glia signaling. This review summarizes the present knowledge about the expression and functional importance of P1 (adenosine) and P2 (nucleotide) receptors in Müller glial cells of the mammalian retina. Mammalian Müller cells express various subtypes of adenosine receptors and metabotropic P2Y receptors. Human Müller cells also express ionotropic P2X7 receptors. Müller cells release ATP upon activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors and/or osmotic membrane stretching. The osmotic mechanism is abrogated under conditions associated with ischemia-hypoxia and inflammation, resulting in swelling of the Müller cells when the extracellular milieu is hypoosmotic. However, exogenous glutamate, which induces the release of ATP and adenosine, and thus activates P2Y1 and A1 adenosine receptors, respectively, prevents such osmotic swelling under pathological conditions, suggesting unimpaired receptor-induced release of ATP. In addition to the inhibition of swelling, which is implicated in regulating the volume of the extracellular space, purinergic signaling is involved in mediating neurovascular coupling. Furthermore, purinergic signals stimulate the proliferation of retinal precursor cells and Müller cells. In normal retinal information processing, Müller cells regulate the synaptic activity by the release of ATP and adenosine. In retinopathies, abrogation of the osmotic release of ATP, and the upregulation of ecto-apyrase (NTPDase1), may have neuroprotective effects by preventing the overactivation of neuronal P2X receptors that are implicated in apoptotic cell death. Pharmacological modulation of purinergic receptors of Müller cells may have clinical importance, e.g., for the clearance of retinal edema and for the inhibition of dysregulated cell proliferation in proliferative retinopathies.